Open Journal Systems


Indra A.S.L.P. Putri


Submontane forest is considered as one of the biodiversity hotspot.  Scientific information on bird diversity in this forest, however are lacking.  The aim of this research was to find out submontane forest bird diversity and its conservation management.  The research was carried out in three forests areas at Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park submontane forest.  Point Count method was used to observe bird population. Data were analyzed using Shannon-Weiner diversity index, Pielou Evenness index, Simpson dominance index, Margalef species richness index, and Sorensen Similarity index. The significance different between the number of individual bird was tested using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.  The result showed that submontane forest at Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park is rich in bird diversity, bird endemic species and protected bird species.  There was a significant different on the number of individual bird at several human disturbance levels.  Based on these conditions, it is important to enhance understanding of the local people regarding zonation and develop cooperation with many stakeholders to increase the local community awareness concerning forest conservation. It is also necessary to ensure the sustainability of the National Park’s conservation program to maintain the submontane forest conservation.


Submontane forest; Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park; bird diversity; conservation management

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 936 times
PDF (Bahasa Indonesia) downloaded - 4128 times


Alldredge, M. W., K. H. Pollock, T. R. Simons, J. A. Collazo and S. A. Shriner. (2007). Time-of-detection method for estimating abundance from point-count surveys. The Auk, 124(2), 653–664.

Barlow, J., L. A. M. Mestre, T. A. Gardener and C. A. Peres. (2007a). The value of primary, secondary and plantation forests for Amazonian birds. Biological Conservation, 136, 212–231.

Barlow, J., T. A. Gardener, I. S. Araujo, T. C. Avila-Pires, A. B. Bonaldo, J. E. Costa, M. C. Esposito, L. V. Ferreira, J. Hawes, M. I. M. Hernandez, M. S. Hoogmoed, R. N. Leite, N. F. Lo-Man-Hung, J. R. Malcolm, M. B. Martins, L. A. M. Mestre, R. Miranda-Santos, A. L. Nunes-Gutjahr, W. L. Overal, L. Parry, S. L. Peters, M. A. Ribeiro-Junior, M. N. F. Da Silva, C. Da Silva Motta and C. A. Peres. (2007b). Quantifying the biodiversity value of tropical primary, secondary, and plantation forests. The National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 104(47), 18555-18560. Doi:10.1073/pnas.0703333104

Bibby Y, C., N.D. Burguess and D.A. HILL. (1992). Bird Census Techniques. London: Academic Press.

Brehm, G., L. M. Pitkin, N. Hilt and K. Fiedler. (2005). Montane Andean rain forests are a global diversity hotspot of geometrid moths. Journal of Biogeography, 32, 1621–1627.

Brilliant, R., V. M. Varghese, J. Paul and A. P. Pradeepkumar. (2012). Vegetation analysis of Montane forest of Western Ghats. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, 4(15), 652-664.

Brower, J.E. and J.H. Zar (1998). Field and Laboratory Methods for General Ecology W.M.C. Brown Company Publishers Bubuque, IOWA.

Canterbury, G. E., T. E. Martin, D. R. Petit, L. J. Petit and D. F. Bradford. (2000), Bird communities and habitat as ecological indicators of forest condition in regional monitoring. Conservation Biology, 14(2), 544 – 558.

Cayuela, L. (2006). The extent, distribution and fragmentation of vanishing montane cloud forest in The Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico. Biotropica, 38(4), 544-554.

CITES. (2014). Spesies Data Base: CITES Species List. Diakses tanggal 25 Mei 2014.

Coates, B.J., K. D. Bishop and D. Gardner. (2000). Panduan Lapangan: Burung-Burung di Kawasan Wallacea: Sulawesi, Maluku dan Nusa Tenggara. Birdlife International-Indonesia Programmed and Dove Publication Pty. Ltd.

Danielsen, F., M. M. Mendoza, A. Tagtag, P. A. Alviola, D. S. Balete, A. E. Jensen, M. Enghoff and M. K. Poulsen. (2007). Increasing conservation management action by involving local people in natural resource monitoring. Ambio, 36, 566–570.

Danielsen, F., C. E. Filardi, K. A. Jonsson, V. Kohaia, N. Krabbe, J. B. Kristensen, R. G. Moyle, P. Pikacha, M. K. Poulsen, M. K. Sorensen, Tatahu, J. Waihuru and J. Fjelds. (2010). Endemic avifaunal biodiversity and tropical forest loss in Makira, A mountainous Pacific Island. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 31, 100–114.

Departemen Kehutanan. (1999). Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 7 Tahun 1999. Departemen Kehutanan. diakses tanggal 3 April 2013.

Eisermann, K. and U. Schulz. (2005). Birds of a High-Altitude Cloud Forest in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Revista de Biología Tropical, 53(3-4), 577-594.

Fachrul, M.F. (2007). Metode Sampling Bioekologi. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.

Fund, W. (2014). Sulawesi Montane Rain Forests. dalam Encyclopedia of Earth. Diakses tanggal 30 Mei 2014.

Gibson, L., T. M. Lee, L. P. Koh, B. W. Brook, T. A. Gardner, J. Barlow, C. A. Peres, C. J. A. Bradshaw, W. F. Laurance, T. E. Lovejoy and N. S. Sodhi. (2011). Primary forests are irreplaceable for sustaining tropical biodiversity. Nature. 1 – 6. Doi:10.1038/nature10425.

Gomes, L. G. L., V. Oostra, V. Nijman, A. M. Cleef and M. Kappelle. (2008). Tolerance of frugivorous birds to habitat disturbance in a tropical cloud forest. Biological Conservation, 141, 860–871. Doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2008.01.007.

Hall, J.M. (2009). Ecological Change in Tanzanian Montane Rainforests: From Species to Landscape. (Disertasi). University of Florida. (Tidak dipublikasikan).

Kessler, M., P. J. A. Keßler, S. R. Gradstein, K. Bach, M. Schmull and R. Pitopang. (2005). Tree diversity in primary forest and different land use systems in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversity and Conservation, 14, 547–560. Doi: 10.1007/s10531-004-3914-7

Kessler, M. and J. Kluge. (2008). Diversity and endemism in tropical montane forests - from patterns to processes. dalam The Tropical Mountain Forest – Patterns and Processes in a Biodiversity Hotspot. S.R. Gradstein, J. Homeier dan D. Gansert (ed). Biodiversity and Ecology Series 2, 35-50. Göttingen Centre for Biodiversity and Ecology.

Kibria, M. and N. Saha. (2011). Analysis of existing agroforestry practices in Madhupur Sal forest: an assessment based on ecological and economic perspectives. Journal of Forestry Research, 22(4), 533 – 542.

Kusmana, C. (1997). Metode Survey Vegetasi. Bogor: PT Penerbit Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Loyn, R. H. and S. J. Kennedy. (2009). Designing old forest for the future: Old trees as habitat for birds in forests of Mountain AshEucalyptus regnans. Forest Ecology and Management xxx: xxx–xx. Article in press. Elsevier B.V. Doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2009.01.005.

Maas, B. (2009). Six Years of Habitat Modification in A Tropical Rainforest Margin of Indonesia Do Not Affect Bird Diversity but Endemic Forest Species. (Skripsi). Department of Population Ecology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, A-1030 Vienna, Austria. (Tidak dipublikasikan).

Martin, T. E. and G. A. Blackburn. (2010). Impacts of tropical forest disturbance upon avifauna on a small island with high endemism: Implications for conservation. Conservation and Society, 8(2), 127-139. Doi:10.4103/0972-4923.68914.

Malizia, L. R., P. G. Blendinger, M. E. Alvarez, L. O. Rivera, N. Politi and G. Nicolossi. (2005). Bird communities in Andean premontane forests of Northwestern Argentina. Ornitologia Neotropical, 16, 231–251.

Nikolov, S. C. (2009). Effect of stand age on bird communities in late-successional Macedonian pine forests in Bulgaria. Forest Ecology and Management, 257, 580–587. Doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2008.09.030

Peh, K. S. H., J. de Jong, N. S. Sodhi, S. L. H. Lim and C. A. M. Yap. (2005). Lowland rainforest avifauna and human disturbance: persistence of primary forest birds in selectively logged forests and mixed-rural habitats of southern Peninsular Malaysia. Biological Conservation, 123, 489–505. Doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2005.01.010.

Santoso, S. (2013). Menguasai SPSS 21 di Era Informasi. Jakarta: PT Elex Media Komputindo.

Soendjoto, M. A., M. K. Riefani, D. Triwibowo, M. N. Anshari and D. Metasari. (2015). Satwa Liar di Area Reklamasi PT Adaro Indonesia, Kalimantan Selatan yang Direvegetasi Kurang dari Dua Tahun. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Konservasi dan Pemanfaatan Sumber Daya Alam 192 – 198. Pendidikan Biologi, Pendidikan Geografi, Pendidikan Sains, PKLH – FKIP UNS.

Supriatna, J. (2008). Melestarikan Alam Indonesia. Indonesia: Yayasan Obor.

Teixeira, H., F. Salas, J. M. Neto, J. Patrı´cio, R. Pinto, H. Verı´ssimo, J. A. Garcı´a-Charton, C. n Marcos, A. Pe´ rez-Ruzafa and J. C. Marques. (2008). Ecological indices tracking distinct impacts along disturbance-recovery gradients in a temperate NE Atlantic Estuary – Guidance on reference values. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 80, 130 – 140.

Trainor, C.R. (2007). Changes in bird species composition on a remote and well-forested Wallacean Island, South-East Asia. Biological Conservation, 140, 373 – 385. Doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2007.08.022

Turkmen, G. and N. Kazanci. (2010). Applications of various biodiversity indices to benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in streams of a national park in Turkey. Review of Hydrobiology, 3(2), 111-125.

Turner, A., E. Sanderson and M. Sweet, P. Raines. (2006). The Biodiversity of the Lower-Montane Forest Habitats of the North Negros Forest Reserve, Negros Occidental, Philippines. London: The Negros Forests and Ecological Foundation, Inc. and Coral Cay Conservation Ltd.

Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (2006). Flora Pegunungan Jawa. Terjemahan ke dalam Bahasa Indonesia dari buku asli The Mountain Flora of Java. Bogor: Pusat penelitian Biologi-LIPI.

Veríssimo, H., J. Netoa, H. Teixeiraa, J.N. Francoa, B. D. Fath, J. C. Marques and J. Patrício (2012). Ability of benthic indicators to assess ecological quality in estuaries following management. Ecological Indicator, 19, 130-143.

Volpato, G. H., E. V. Lopes, L. B. Mendonça, R. Boçon, M. V. Bisheimer, P. P. Serafini and L. dos Anjos. (2009). The use of the Point Count Method for Bird Survey in the Atlantic Forest. Zoologia (Curitiba, Impresso), 26(1), 74-78.

Waltert, M., A. Mardiastuti and M. Mühlenberg. (2005). Effects of deforestation and forest modification on understorey birds in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Bird Conservation International 15, 257–273. Doi: 10.1017/S0959270905000432.

Wijesinghe, M. R. and M. de L. Brooke. (2005). Impact of habitat disturbance on the distribution of endemic species of small mammals and birds in a tropical rain forest in Srilanka. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 21,(06), 661-668.


  • There are currently no refbacks.